AD's English Literature : March 2015

Friday, March 27, 2015

Definition of Romanticism: Master Artists and their Shaping Influences


"I could lie down like a tired child,
And weep away the life of care
Which I have borne and yet must bear,
Till death like sleep might steal on me."

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 - 1822)




Romanticism has been variously defined. Some consider it s the Renascence of Wonder’, some as ‘a revolt against tradition and authority’; others take it as ‘a return to Nature’ or ‘addition of strangeness to beauty’ or ‘liberty’.

The limits of the Romantic Age in English literature are generally set at 1789 (i.e., the beginning of the French Revolution) or 1798 (i.e., the publication of the Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge) and 1832 (i.e., the year of Scott’s death and the introduction of the Reform Bill which granted voting right to the middle-class people). Its span, therefore, extends to three or four decades.

Sunday, March 22, 2015

Open Air Play-houses in Elizabethan Stage (Theatre): A Brief Survey

"But men must know, that in this theatre of man's life it is reserved only for God and angels to be lookers on."
Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)

The Elizabethan theaters were open air play-houses. Some were polygonal or roughly circular in shape. They held last audience of two or three thousands. They had two or three levels of roofed galleries that extended, on the upper levels, all the way around the theater surrounded an open space. In this space were the stage and the dressing room as well as the so called yard. In the yard stood the spectators, who chooses to pay less and were exposed to all kinds of weather.

Unlike the yard, the stage itself was covered by a roof. The stage was a large rectangle platform that threshes for into the yard, perhaps even as far as the centre of the circle formed by the surrounding galleries.

Major Highlights from Habib Tanvir’s play "Charandas Chor"


"He who confronts the paradoxical exposes himself to reality."
Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921 - 1990)



Character of the minister: The minister is newly appointed. His rank is next to the queen. So he is supposed to be an intelligent and responsible man. But here he appears to be a gullible person. He comes to the village to take the stock of the royal treasury. On the way he met with the Guru and cannot resist the temptation of a long series of inauguration. Thus he is easily befooled by Charandas and his associates. Later he obeys the orders of the queen placidly instead of giving her true advice. He is also snubbed again by the queen for not carrying out his orders properly. He acts like a puppet. Thus the playwright pokes fun at the inefficiency of a high positioned administrator like him.

Famous Novels for Literature Students : Gleams of Classic Works

"The novel being dead, there is no point to writing made-up stories. Look at the French who will not and the Americans who cannot."
Gore Vidal (1925 - 2012 )


A novel is a literary work where the author narrates a fictitious story in the prose form which can taken the place of the ancient epics if not in The magnitude of epic by the volume or narrative enlargement; rather by expansion of thought and perception. The term, 'novel' has been coined from the Italian word novella during the late 18th century. Though the novel form was introduced much later than the other forms of literature namely, the poetry and drama; novel, today has gained immense popularity among the masses. Today, one is exposed to innumerable novels written by authors from every corner of the world.  Today's novels reflects the conscience of an age, its life style and thought equilibrium. As from Homer to Milton the epics become the carriage of social, moral and communal representation, the same search of age – consciousness is done, at least tried, through the novels. The dramas in the early stage have their limitation in its time frame and dramatic setting. Even Shakespeare fails to cross these limitations. After many currents and cross currents of prose-lyrics become mulch-faceted, many – sided, complex and abundantly rich in it astonishing variety. The modern novelists are reading the conscience of his characters through the medium of his own, and by the process the dimensional mirror of novel is reflecting an age conscience which we have already read in epics. Modern novel is truly the ‘comic prose epic’.  These novels fall into different categories according to genre they come under. The different genres of novels include romantic, drama, science fiction, political, historical, etc. Though loads of novels are published every year, not all become famous. The novels that become well known to readers are those that have a good plot, storyline and written in a way that entices the readers. So, this article is for people who want to know about the famous novels that have become a favorite of book lovers all over the world. Read more on bestselling books.

Saturday, March 21, 2015

Birth of English: Indo-European Language Study-Old English Overview


"The people of the United States...speak, as a body, incomparably better English than the people of the mother country."
James Fenimore Cooper (1789 - 1851)

Although English is not bound by this geographical boundary and spoken by millions in many other parts of the world, its history as a language is confined almost wholly to England. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)  The language , a variant of West Germanic, forefathers came to that country from the lowlands in the north-western part of what is now called Germany, during the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries of the Christian era, and destroyed or pushed back the Celts the indigenous Celtic-speaking peoples, who had lived there before and who spoke a language much likewise of the present day. The invaders belonged to three different tribes of certain Germanic peoples of the regions comprising present-day southern Denmark and northern Germany, known as Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (or Frisians). Read More Old English Literature History, however, leads us to believe that they were the entire Angle (or English) race, and that, with some slight differences they spoke the same language. This language is rightly called English; for they almost always called themselves Engle, and their language English. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)   Because the English language was brought into English, a England from the country now called Germany, being Latin fielded like the other languages of that country, it is the still like those now spoken there, and is, for this German reason, often called a Germanic (or, which is as a Teutonic) language. As time went on, Old English evolved further from the original Continental form, and regional dialects developed.  Of the Teutonic languages there are three great divisions, based upon their resemblances and differences:


Divisions of the Teutonic sub-family.

Creative Writing : "Autobiography of a Teacher" Model for Writing Class for EFL Students



A creative article like that of An autobiographical article can focus on many points-
1. Introduction

 2. Development of the story
3. Analytical Discussions
4. Personal views
5. Conclusion

Writing an autobiography helps the power of creatively and imagination which play an important part in it. So it may be said that the information given in an autobiography may not be true always as the author has the liberty to exaggerate an idea in his own way. The author personalizes that object in his own way. Thus an autobiography develops the personal insight of the writer. It colors the whole subject. So it suggested that the author. Read More Teaching English TEFL  Should consult various sources for writing an autobiography so there may develop a similarity between the objective and the conceptions. It surely represents our aesthetic sense and develops our power of imagination.  
     
Here we might alight the key points of arguments in writing An Autobiography of Teacher and impliedly telling the story of Students’ dream. Now let’s work out the following writing exercise:

 
1. Introduction: Assistant masters came and went....Some liked little boys too little and some too much.”

Evelyn Waugh (1903 - 1966)

British novelist.

A Little Learning


As a patriot and an ideal man, I always remember the words that passion is the key. India is a religious country. There men are known by their religion, there caste. But some people ask me never believe this. I know that people are known by their job, character and also love for other. I got the lyric from a teacher at our school, where I taught my subject. Then, I thought that it just a lyric and no reality.But the mystery and prophetic still keep inside of it. But now it is known by me that lyric never falls. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)   Now I become a teacher by cover the lyric steps by steps. Teaching has been regarded as a noble profession is India. Teachers are highly respected in our country. My aim is May at success as a teacher. I have some day to perform for my school is where I am a teacher and some at that I also have some duty to perform country where I live. To make a country bright we need some ideal man and their ideal knowledge. I seem to myself an Ideal man and also a teacher. All students at our country are not taught by me. These some other students will be teaching by thus about knowledge. Thus I wanted to build up a future at our country by the teaching. I have confidence enough to fulfill my dream. One fine morning, I know my dream will come true.

Thursday, March 19, 2015

Analysis of Jack (John) Tanner as Shavian Don Juan in 'Man and Superman'



"I am a gentleman. I live by robbing the poor."

George Bernard Shaw (1856 - 1950)





 Don Juan is a type by himself, invented by a Spanish Monk early n the 16th century. He is an archetypal character who has passed through different ages. He was represented as an ardent rebel against God and religion. Read More Drama He took ‘arms against a sea of’ conventional values about morality and ethics. As an enemy of God, he exulted in sensuous or carnal pleasure and remained unrelenting until the doomsday. This is the traditional Don Juan—a licentious and immoral and unrepentant libertine who flouted all norms of sex and amorality and was not struck by penitence even up to the end. The old Spanish tale recounts the promiscuous Don Juan's seduction of the daughter of Sevilla's military commander. After killing the commander in a duel, Juan cynically invites the victim's funerary statue to a feast. The statue comes to life, seizes the defiant Juan, and drags him down to hell.

Wednesday, March 11, 2015

William Blake’s Prophetic and Esoteric Melody in His Writings and Paintings




"He has no sense of the ludicrous, and, as to God, a worm crawling in a privy is as worthy an object as any other, all being to him indifferent. So to Blake the Chimney Sweeper etc. He is ruined by vain struggles to get rid of what presses on his brain—he attempts impossibles."
William Hazlitt (1778 - 1830)

William Blake (1757-1827), English mystical poet, painter, and engraver is among the most original, lyric, and prophetic in the language. By his own effort he learnt Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, and Italian. The Bible, Milton, and the Elizabethan poets inspired him profoundly. He also absorbed ideas from the Swedish visionary, Swedenborg, from the German mystic Boehme, from the Neo-Platonist, and from the esoteric doctrine of Rosicrucianism.

During his lifetime Blake was known more as an illustrator than as a poet, and he earned his scant living chiefly by engraving and illustrating other men’s works. His quality as an artist is seen in the plates for Young’s Night Thoughts, the poems of Thomas Gray, Blair’s The Grave, Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, for the Bible, including 21 illustrations to The Book of Job, and Dante’s Divine Comedy. Blake’s poetry was published in a manner most unusual in literary and art history- he personally manufactured every copy. The verses were not typeset but wets, with the engravings that illustrated them, cut into copper plates. The pages themselves he illuminated in water colours. Little valued by his contemporaries, Blake’s illustrations have become prized collectors’ items.

Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Analyzing Oliver Goldsmith’s 'The Vicar of Wakefield' as Charming Narrative



"Conscience is a coward, and those faults it has not strength enough to prevent it seldom has justice enough to accuse."
Oliver Goldsmith (1730 - 1774)



Oliver Goldsmith (playwright and novelist) (1730-74), Anglo-Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and essayist, best known for his witty comedy She Sloops to Conquer was not a regular novelist and yet his novel The Vicar of Wakefield, is an early best example of the form and well recognized. He became a novelist only by chance and necessity. He was in urgent need of money, a novel, The Vicar of Wakefield, was found ready in his desk, end Dr Johnson sold it for sixty guineas. Read More Novel The publication of The Vicar of Wakefield (1766) is believed to have been hastily arranged by Johnson in order to save Goldsmith from going to jail for debt. In this way was the initial novel enriched by this charming, delightful, little piece. He has place in the history of the English novel by virtue of a single work, but that place is very high.

Sunday, March 8, 2015

General Estimation of Shakespeare’s History Plays: Analyzing Henry IV of Second Tetralogy (Richard II, Henry IV Part 1, Henry IV Part 2, and Henry V)


"PRINCE HENRY If all the year were playing holidays, To sport would be as tedious as to work.
William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616)

Saturday, March 7, 2015

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 82



A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK

A. Prose poetry should be considered as neither primarily poetry nor prose but is essentially a hybrid or fusion of the two, and accounted a separate genre altogether. Prose poetry originated in early 19th century France and Germany as a reaction against dependence upon traditional uses of line in verse.
  Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)    Prose poetry dates back to the ancient writings of Hebrew scholars. It was used in the King James version of the Bible in the Book of Psalms.

Examples
Psalm 93
“The Lord reigneth, he is clothed with majesty;the Lord is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.
Thy throne is established of old: thou art from everlasting.
The floods have lifted up, Oh Lord, the floods have lifted up their voice; the floods lift up their waves.
The Lord on high is mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, than the mighty waves of the sea.
Thy testimonies are very sure: holiness becometh thine house, O Lord, forever.”

Tuesday, March 3, 2015

English Environment While Teaching English as Second Language: Observations and Investigations: The Rising Middle Class

"Poor Knight! he really had two periods, the first—a dull man writing broken English, the second—a broken man writing dull English."
Vladimir Nabokov (1899 - 1977)

With intensive interaction with the teachers, parents, and people interested in education in the post modern era in non speaking zone of English, we are simply much impressed by the widespread desire for English in almost all stations of life, and in all classes and categories of people. An overwhelming majority of the parents told in clear and unambiguous terms that they wanted proactively to learn English, and learn it early. This is true for general query to Google search.  They do not simply call what the neurologists say, unless they say something which, coining to them second-hand and much distorted, they feel works in their favour, and they remain totally rigid. They are impervious about the pedagogical or logistical arguments against the early introduction of English. Read More TEFL  Nor do they ponder over how the teachers, with the present load on their hands and their inadequate command on the language, can take the extra burden of teaching it. They just want that their children are given an opportunity to learn English, the earlier the better. The middle class parents of rising economy of the Asian and middle east countries say this in chorus, but even those who cannot be called ‘middle-class’ in the strict economic sense of the term, but are aspirants to become members of it sooner or later, i.e., rickshaw-pullers, rickshaw-van drivers and other members of the day-labouring class, demand in union that English must be a component in the syllabus at the elementary stage.

Monday, March 2, 2015

Capacity of Creativity Writing : Writing an Autobiography


“Make 'em laugh; make 'em cry; make 'em wait.”
Attributed to Charles Reade (1814 - 1884) British novelist and playwright. Advice to an aspiring writer. 


 Creativity is simply the capacity to have new thoughts and to create expressions unlike any other. Creativity is a basic element in many human endeavors, such as art, music, literature, and performance. Such creative impulse can be cultured into the pupils for the very outset of their learning process. 

Sunday, March 1, 2015

What is The Shakespearean Apocrypha ? Plays of Doubtful Authenticity



"Shakespeare enjoyed the advantage of living in a creative age in a vigorous Protestant country where the madness of bigotry was silent for a while."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832)


Shakespeare’s Apocrypha—Apocrypha means in its dictionary sense hidden or secret things and it is specially applicable to certain books or parts of books of the Old and New Testaments, which are not generally accepted as canonical or authoritative by the Jews and the Christians Apocryphal accordingly has come to ‘stand for something rather spurious, of doubtful authority or authenticity.


The Shakespearean Apocrypha comprises the plays of doubtful authenticity attributed to Shakespeare but not included in the canon of First Folio of 1623. These works fall into four groups:

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